04 April 2021 – The Hindu + Indian Express + Daily PIB Analysis
One Nation One Ration Card
GS Paper 2: Welfare Schemes
Why in News?
- The Centre praised the achievements of Rajasthan in the implementation of the “one nation, one ration card” scheme to enable migrant workers and their families to access the benefits of the public distribution system (PDS) from anywhere.
- Rajasthan is the 12th State to successfully undertake the reform.
What is one Nation One Ration Card Scheme?
- Ration Cards are issued through the Public Distribution Systems across all the states in India.
- With the help of Ration Cards, the people of weaker sections of the society can avail of various benefits such as essential commodities like Rice, Wheat, Sugar, etc. Moreover, Ration Card helps people to derive the different welfare schemes by the government.
- Taking the Ration Card Services to the next level, the Indian government launched a flagship program called One Nation One Ration Scheme.
- Under this scheme, the citizens, mostly the migrant workers, can collect the ration from anywhere across India. The citizens can apply for the Ration Online, Check the List, and even the Card Status on the impds.nic.in portal.
Benefits of One Nation One Ration Scheme
Let us see the benefits the citizens derive from the One Nation Scheme.
- The citizens can avail of this scheme from June 2021.
- The scheme benefits the migrant workers to utilize the ration card scheme anywhere across India.
- It paves the way for transparent and smooth Public Distribution Services.
Sources: TH, https://www.hindiyojana.in/
GS Paper-3 Science and Technology - Communication
What is 5G?
- 5G is the 5th generation mobile network. It is a new global wireless standard after 1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G networks. 5G enables a new kind of network that is designed to connect virtually everyone and everything together including machines, objects, and devices.
- 5G wireless technology is meant to deliver higher multi-Gbps peak data speeds, ultra low latency, more reliability, massive network capacity, increased availability, and a more uniform user experience to more users.
- Higher performance and improved efficiency empower new user experiences and connects new industries.
The previous generations of mobile networks are 1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G.
First generation - 1G
1980s: 1G delivered analog voice.
Second generation - 2G
Early 1990s: 2G introduced digital voice (e.g. CDMA- Code Division Multiple Access).
Third generation - 3G
Early 2000s: 3G brought mobile data (e.g. CDMA2000).
Fourth generation - 4G LTE
2010s: 4G LTE ushered in the era of mobile broadband.
1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G all led to 5G, which is designed to provide more connectivity than was ever available before.
5G is a unified, more capable air interface. It has been designed with an extended capacity to enable next-generation user experiences, empower new deployment models and deliver new services.
With high speeds, superior reliability and negligible latency, 5G will expand the mobile ecosystem into new realms. 5G will impact every industry, making safer transportation, remote healthcare, precision agriculture, digitized logistics and more a reality.
Opportunities of 5G in India
5G brings great benefits to the civilian and commercial telecommunications sectors. It will generate higher data rates, rapid transmission enabled by high bandwidth, and beyond the benefits it brings to the civilian sector, there are considerable military benefits as well.
Potential Benefits of 5G In India
- The cumulative economic impact of 5G on India could reach US $ 1 trillion by 2035.
- This will help to incorporate artificial intelligence into our lives and enable seamless data exchange to smart devices to provide an environment for the Internet of Things (IoT).
- 5G can enable improvements in the entire value chain, from agriculture to smart irrigation, better monitoring of soil and crop, and livestock management.
- 5G will enable the use of robotics for precision manufacturing, especially where humans cannot perform these tasks safely or accurately.
- In health care, 5G can enable more effective telepathy delivery, remote control of surgical robotics, and wireless monitoring of critical data.
- According to a World Bank report, the implementation of 5G in India will accelerate economic growth by 13.8%. It will facilitate automation through the Internet of Things in smart manufacturing.
- With the help of 5G, the use of virtual reality and robotics in health education, etc. will be possible. The Smart City and Digital India programs will get a boost.
- 5G will bring a digital revolution in rural India through initiatives such as smart village application cloud solutions to improve productivity in areas such as agriculture, MSME, banking,
Challenges of 5G in India
1. The need for a spectrum
- The rest of world may already by rolling out 5G connectivity to its users but, in India, 5G spectrum is yet to be allocated. This means full-fledged trials are still pending which is needed for telecom operators to test their technology.
2. Spectrum is too expensive
- One of the reasons that the 5G spectrum auction has been delayed in India is because its too expensive for telecom companies. India’s debt-ridden operators are still reeling under the pressure to keep 4G costs low.
- The Indian government announced that it is looking into new ways to price the spectrum to accommodate the requests of the telecom companies at IMC.
3. Finding space for the spectrum
- As network connectivity expands, more towers and more antennas will be required. The end ownership of site will also have a greater role to play.
4. Affordable 5G devices
- On the consumer front, even if 5G network connectivity comes in, affordable 5G phones are yet to make into the market.
GS Paper 3 - Economic Development - Inflation & Monitory Policy
Why in News?
- The Finance Ministry announced that the inflation target for the five years between April 2021 and March 2026 will remain unchanged at 4%, with an upper tolerance level of 6% and a lower tolerance level of 2%.
- This is the retail inflation target that will drive the country’s monetary policy framework and influence its decision to raise, hold or lower interest rates.
What is inflation targeting?
- Inflation targeting is a central banking policy that revolves around adjusting monetary policy to achieve a specified annual rate of inflation.
- The principle of inflation targeting is based on the belief that long-term economic growth is best achieved by maintaining price stability, and price stability is achieved by controlling inflation.
- What is the current targeted range of inflation?
- It is 2% to 6% with mean rate 4%
Who do Inflation targeting in our country?
- Inflation targeting in India is done by RBI.
Why targeting inflation is important?
- Inflation targeting means Central Banks are responsible for using monetary policy to keep inflation close to the agreed target.
- Inflation targets were introduced to help reduce inflation expectations and help avoid the periods of high inflation which destabilised global economies in the 1970s and 80s.
GS Paper 2 Constitutional Posts
What is CAG?
- The Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) of India is the Constitutional Authority in India, established under Article 148 of the Constitution of India.
- He is empowered to Audit all receipts and expenditure of the Government of India and the State Governments, including those of autonomous bodies and corporations substantially financed by the Government.
- The CAG is also the statutory auditor of Government-owned corporations and conducts supplementary audit of government companies in which the Government has an equity share of at least 51 per cent or subsidiary companies of existing government companies.
- The reports of the CAG are laid before the Parliament/Legislatures and are being taken up for discussion by the Public Accounts Committees (PACs) and Committees on Public Undertakings (COPUs), which are special committees in the Parliament of India and the state legislatures.
- The CAG is also the head of the Indian Audit and Accounts Department, the affairs of which are managed by officers of Indian Audit and Accounts Service.
- In 1971 the central government enacted the Comptroller and Auditor General of India (Duties, Powers, and Conditions of Service) Act, 1971. In 1976 CAG was relieved from accounting functions.
- Article 148 – 151 of the Constitution of India deal with the institution of the CAG of India.
- The CAG is ranked 9th and enjoys the same status as a sitting judge of Supreme Court of India in order of precedence.
- The former Lt. Governor of UT of Jammu Kashmir G. C. Murmu is the current CAG of India. He assumed office on 8 August 2020. He is the 14th CAG of India.
Source: Wikipedia, The Hindu
GS Paper-1 Social Issues
Why in News?
- AAP MLA files complaint against temple priest for ‘blasphemy’.
What is Blasphemy?
- Blasphemy is an insult that shows contempt, disrespect, or lack of reverence concerning a deity, a sacred object, or something considered inviolable.
- Some religions consider blasphemy to be a religious crime.
- As of 2012, anti-blasphemy laws existed in 32 countries, while 87 nations had hate speech laws that covered defamation of religion and public expression of hate against a religious group.
- Anti-blasphemy laws are particularly common in Muslim-majority nations, such as those in the Middle East and North Africa, although they are also present in some Asian and European countries.
Laws related to Blasphemy in India.
Section 295A of the IPC:
- It penalises any deliberate intention of insulting the religion or religious beliefs of any class of citizen
- Section 295A is a cognizable offence, which means that the police are authorised to arrest accused persons without the need of a judicially sanctioned warrant.
- This law was added only in 1927. Earlier India never had blasphemy law
- It is often argued that Section 295A is not a section for blasphemy but a section against Hate Speech
- Sections 124A, 153A, 153B, 292, and 293 of IPC also related to blasphemy
- These sections prohibit any words or representations that insult any individual’s or group’s religious beliefs, or that are meant to incite enmity against a particular religion.
Source: TH, Wikipedia
GS Paper 3 Health and diseases
What is Diphtheria?
- Diphtheria is a serious infection caused by strains of bacteria called Corynebacterium diphtheriae that make a toxin (poison).
- It is the toxin that can cause people to get very sick.
- Diphtheria bacteria spread from person to person, usually through respiratory droplets, like from coughing or sneezing. People can also get sick from touching infected open sores or ulcers.
- Diphtheria usually begins with angina (a type of chest pain) and tonsilitis symptoms, sore throat and mild fever.
- The diphtheria toxin causes inflammation of heart muscle (myocarditis) and this can lead to death if not treated with diphtheria antitoxin and proper antibiotics.
- Formation of white grey pseudomembrane over parts of the throat (pharynx) , voice box (larynx) and tonsils and swollen bull neck are considered stereotypical, although they may not show up in some cases.
Diphtheria is a vaccine preventable disease – the toxoid vaccine elicits an immune response against the toxin which is encoded by a tox gene of the pathogen. Sometimes, spurts of diphtheria outbreaks occur in unvaccinated or partially vaccinated communities.
Current situation of Diphtheria in India
- There is an increasing trend in the number of cases of diphtheria globally, as the number of cases in 2018 (16,651) was double the 1996– 2017 average (8,105).
- Relevant to India is the statistic that 50% of the cases that came up in 2018 were in India.
- Current measures taken by country and challenges, what to be done?
- The only effective way to prevent Diphtheria in children is to provide active immunization to all children. It is recommended under Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP) in India. Single antigen diphtheria vaccine is not available.
- It is a health mission of the Government of India, it was launched on 25 December 2014.
- The scheme this seeks to drive towards 90% full immunisation coverage of India and sustain the same by year 2020.
- Vaccination is being provided against eight vaccine-preventable diseases nationally, i.e. Diphtheria, Whooping Cough, Tetanus, Polio, Measles, severe form of Childhood Tuberculosis and Hepatitis B and meningitis & pneumonia caused by Haemophilus influenza type B; and against Rotavirus Diarrhea and Japanese Encephalitis in selected states and districts respectively.
- 201 districts will be covered in the first phase. Of these, 82 districts are in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, and Madhya Pradesh.
- The 201 districts selected have nearly 50% of all unvaccinated children in the country.
- The mission follow planning and administration like PPI (Pulse Polio immunisation). Mission Indradhanush may be regarded as one of the key schemes of the NDA government in India.
GS Paper 3 - Internal Security - North East
Insurgency in Northeast
Why in News?
- The outlawed United Liberation Front of Asom (Independent), or ULFA (I), has released one of the two employees of a New Delhi based private oil exploration firm its members had abducted from Arunachal Pradesh more than three months ago.
What is ULFA?
- The United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA) is an armed separatist organisation operating in the Indian state of Assam.
- It seeks to establish an independent state of Assam with armed struggle in the Assam conflict.
- The Government of India banned the organisation in 1990 citing it as a terrorist organisation, while the United States Department of State lists it under "other groups of concern.
- According to ULFA sources, it was founded on 7 April 1979 at Rang Ghar and began operations in 1990.
- Sunil Nath, former Central Publicity Secretary and spokesman of ULFA has stated that the organisation established ties with the Nationalist Socialist Council of Nagaland in 1983 and with the Burma based Kachin Independent Army in 1987.
- Military operations against the ULFA by the Indian Army began in 1990 and continue into the present.
- On 5 December 2009, the chairman and the deputy commander-in-chief of ULFA was taken into Indian custody.
- In 2011, there was a major crackdown on the ULFA in Bangladesh, which greatly assisted the government of India in bringing ULFA leaders to talks. In January 2010, ULFA softened its stance and dropped demands for independence as a condition for talks with the Government of India.
- On 3 September 2011, a tripartite agreement for "Suspension of Operations" against ULFA was signed between the Indian government, the Assam government and the ULFA.
Preliminary Exam : Important Events
What is DRS?
- DRS, stands for Decision Review System which is a technology-based system to assist the umpires on the ground with their robust decision-making capacity.
- It is an effort to ensure that decisions are taken with utmost transparency and the correct call is made at the end of each event.
- The meaning of a team opting for a DRS refers to the process of the on-field umpire invoking the third umpire to make the correct decision using DRS technology.
- Hence, it was first introduced in July 2008 in India’s Test series in Sri Lanka.
How DRS works?
- Every decision reviewed using DRS involves fixed steps followed by the third umpire as part of the DRS rules established in cricket.
- After the on-field umpire gives his decision, the challenging team has a time of 15 seconds to make its decision if they want to opt for the DRS call or not.
- The fielding captain or the batsman declared out needs to signal a “T” sign to the onfield-umpire to review the decision.
- As it happens, the third umpire checks if it’s a legal delivery in case the bowler has overstepped before proceeding with the replays at the business end.
- If the delivery is fair and legal, then the third umpire proceeds to the other end involving the heart of the event.
- The third umpire is facilitated with Ultra-Edge/Real-Time Snicko (RTS) and HotSpot as two means to check if the ball has hit the bat in case of an lbw or an appeal for a catch.
- The HotSpot technology works on the process of heat caused by the interaction between bat and ball, which will immediately result in a spot on the bat in case of a possible edge.
- Whereas, UltraEdge or RTS uses sound to indicate a deviation or spike when the ball is close to the bat.
Issues related with DRS-
- Decision of on field umpire overruled sometime. That can create sense of humilation.
- Only 2 chance available with a team in an inning. The team taking review should be correct otherwise it's one chance will be deducted.
- technology is not fully reliable and can be wrong sometime. silicon tape (caught behind), and trajectory of ball(lbw).
Sources: TH, https://cricnerds.com/